THE landmarks they are not embroidery stitches like those of cross stitch, but references that are used when we want to refer to our body. Let's see what they are and when they are useful. They are almost everywhere because they serve to "orient us" in every area.
Landmarks: human body
"Repere" means find, that is to find, and it is from here that we can understand what the points we are talking about are for. These are points used when it is necessary to locate a region of the body in a unique way, without misunderstandings of any kind. They are the anatomists that, in this way, using terms that were common to all, they managed to uniquely define the different parts of the body to then be able to trace the positions of points and areas of interest from time to time, referring to fixed, general and shared points.
As happens when traveling, with geographic coordinates, kilometers and cardinal points, even when it comes to orienting oneself in the human body it is necessary to have a "reference system”With starting points that can be used that indicate areas and directions. This also serves, for example, when it comes to accurately describing parts of the body, including position.
Due to their function, i landmarks they can only be scattered everywhere, as we are about to see, so that there is no “unreachable” or indescribable part of the body ”.
To identify points that could then be of reference, it was decided to consider the body in anatomical position, that is, in an upright position with the feet side by side and the upper limbs dangling at the sides, the hands must have the palms facing forward.
The directions are: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial and lateral, proximal and distal. The upper one goes towards the head or the higher part of a body formation, the lower one consequently moves away from the head or goes towards the lower part of a formation. The anterior direction goes towards the plane of the forehead, the posterior one proceeds in the opposite direction, the medial towards the median part of the body, on the internal side, the lateral one moves away from the median plane of the body, on the external side.
Let's move on to the proximal direction which is the one near the origin of a body formation or near a point of attachment of a limb to the trunk. Compared to the wrist, the elbow turns out to be proximal because it is closer to the point of attachment of the limb to the trunk which is in fact the shoulder. Only the distal direction is missing, so defined because it is the one that moves away from the origin of a body formation or at the point of attachment of a limb to the trunk.
Many of the landmarks are located on the front and back of the body, quite visible.
Let's see some, starting from those mentioned in the finding of the points in foot reflexology.
In front of the body there are the following points:
abdominal: front part of the trunk, under the ribs;
cervical: neck region;
digitalis: fingers and toes;
inguinal: area where the thighs join the trunk;
pubic: genital region;
sternal: region of the sternum;
Let's move on to back of the body where we find the following reference areas
deltoid: convexity of the shoulder formed by the deltoid muscle;
lumbar: area of the back between the ribs and the hip;
occipital - posterior surface of the head;
popliteal: posterior area of the knee, hollow of the knee;
scapular: region of the scapula;
vertebral: area of the spine.
We dedicate a separate paragraph to the foot that contains many landmarks. Let's go to study the bones that we find in the foot that we can divide into three groups: bones of the tarsus, bones of the metatarsus, bones of the phalanges.
The bones of the first category, those of the tarsus, are seven, called tarsal bones. This part is commonly called the ankle and heel and is made up of bones that are wider than the tarsi and phalanges. They form the back of the plant. It is very difficult to distinguish the bones of the tarsus with sight or touch, it is necessary to proceed with a very careful palpation of the back of the foot to be able to perceive its presence and very often, if you are not an expert, you cannot understand what bones it is.
The metatarsal bones instead there are only five long bones, and they form a precise part of the sole of the foot, the one that forms the plantar arch where there are the points of intersection with the bones of the tarsus. The bones of the metatarsals are visible to the naked eye, on the back they are easily identified, on the sole it is more difficult because they are partially covered by the lower muscles of the foot which masks their appearance.
We arrived at bones of the phalanges: in this category there are even fourteen, it is in fact the bones of the toes. Each of them is made up of three phalanges, all except the big toe which, despite being the largest, consists of only two phalanges. To find the phalanges of the toes it is necessary to observe the points of intersection with the metatarsals, points where the flexion of the tip of the foot occurs. If we want to identify the last two phalanges, however, it is necessary to proceed distally in the intradigital folds.
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